Thriving in complexity

florian-avatarby Florian Plank Chief Strategy Officer
Mar 23rd, 2023
  • AI
  • Design
  • Culture
  • Engineering

The fourth industrial revolution will affect the very essence of our human experience.

- Klaus Schwab, Chairman and founder of the World Economic Forum

Our societies are entering an unparalleled period of change as digital, physical, and biological systems converge. What began with small but significant advances in AI has evolved into a rapidly approaching wave of complexity.As we seek tools to adapt, design assumes a new role: it’s up to designers and design leaders to ensure innovation is not only technologically advanced but also centered around human needs and aspirations.This has happened before.

Navigating disruption

The first industrial revolution caused substantial disruption. Industries were transformed and professions became obsolete.The second (the one with the telephone) and third (the one with computers) were similarly disruptive, albeit less violently.Companies faced sharp increases in complexity during the last two revolutions. Both times, design’s role and meaning evolved. In the late 20th century, companies shifted focus towards customer needs as the service industry rose. Previously, businesses concentrated on their products and production, with minimal consideration for customer needs beyond basic functionality. The emergence of personal computers, the internet, and social media in an increasingly saturated global marketplace created demand for better experiences. Customer loyalty and reputation required more than just exceptional products. Design had to rise to the challenge.

“Everything is about to change. Again.”

As we confront the fourth Industrial Revolution (the one with AI), we look to history for insights into what may be in store. Over the past three industrial revolutions, design has become a powerful tool, adapting to new paradigms and changing purposes. While technology drives and enables change, design has allowed companies to adapt and scale to challenges with focus. This time, design aims to lead the charge.

Better products

Over the past seven years, we at DK&A have helped companies build better digital products and services through design and especially Design Leadership:

  • Better in fulfilling real customer needs.

  • Better in aligning with our client’s brand and vision, strategically and tactically.

  • Better in being unexpected, delightful, radical, emotional, and beautiful.

Companies engage us for a specific need: a new mobile app for a smart alarm system, a smoother service experience for mobility needs and rental cars, or an improved customer service experience for insurance claims. They stay with us because we go beyond our contract: our teams use their experience to guide and advise on vision, strategy, ways of working, communication, and organizational questions. The added value comes from designers and engineers considering business goals, brand, strategy, and teams. We’ve always been product-focused, not just skilled at coding or arranging interface elements.If this sounds like a marketing pitch, it’s because it is. It’s an aspiration describing our ideal relationship with clients, and one we’re increasingly able to achieve.

Design leadership

As we prepare to guide our clients (and our own organization) through one of the most significant transformation processes of our working lives, we consider the following questions:

  • If we believe that the role of design will change fundamentally again, what does this mean for us as designers and expert advisors?

  • Our clients turn to us for advice when they need a North Star. How will our approach to Design Leadership have to adjust?


Leadership is highly contextual and can be hard to define in general terms. At DK&A, we think about leadership as a series of questions we ask and actively seek answers to.

When it comes to Design Leadership, we can cluster these questions into four main categories:


Generative AI will very likely change many areas of our work for good. As smart and contextual content generation, comprehension, and transformation becomes widely available and adopted we will feel pushed to reinvent Design and our approach to Design Leadership once more.

Rather than focusing solely on empathy, emotions, or creative thinking, a better approach may be to look ahead. Previous industrial revolutions created more jobs than they displaced. To lead the charge in the fourth Industrial Revolution, Design Leadership must forecast and adapt or extend our approach by asking more questions:


  • Adaptability and innovation: How do we prepare organizations to evaluate change intentionally and embrace opportunities fiercely? How do we prevent complacency and foster a culture of innovation?

  • Ethics: How do we ensure products and services of tomorrow adhere to today’s ethical standards? How do we balance opportunism with individual and societal needs and weaknesses?


  • Cross-functional collaboration: How do we promote collaboration between designers, engineers, data scientists, and other specialists to address complex challenges effectively?

  • Culture of learning: How do we support continuous learning and development to keep up with emerging technologies and new approaches?


  • Inclusivity: How do we create products catering to diverse user groups, including those with disabilities, different cultural backgrounds, and varying levels of technological proficiency?

  • System thinking: How can we adopt a holistic approach to design, considering the intricate interplay of elements within larger ecosystems, to create adaptive and resilient solutions?


  • Integration: How do we effectively integrate emerging technologies into our design and engineering processes and product offerings today?

  • Resilience: How do we build operational resilience to navigate uncertainties and disruptions?

Asking the right questions

During the first Industrial Revolution (the one with steam engines), the world of product design experienced significant shifts. New manufacturing techniques allowed for increased production and precision on a larger scale, leading to a need for consistency. This required larger factories with specialized machines and skilled workers.

To manage the growing complexity, business owners turned to standardization. Designers seized the opportunity and shifted their focus. Design, once a discipline aimed at delivering contemporary aesthetic ideals, became an enabler for efficiency. Over 100 years ago, designers followed Frederick Winslow Taylor’s “scientific management” principles to optimize work processes and enhance productivity using data analysis.

As we enter the fourth Industrial Revolution, it falls to Design to ask the right questions, and to Design Leadership must push for the right answers, honestly and with integrity. Many organizations may be tempted to address new challenges superficially, defensively, or insincerely. A solid, structured approach, led by design, can serve as a powerful antidote.

Design has already weathered three Industrial Revolutions by anticipating challenges and adapting to meet them head-on. Through thoughtful, dynamic leadership, we can empower other industries to harness the power of design in the same way.